I have a ticking noise coming from my 350 that is driving me crazy. The truck runs great, but I began hearing a slight rubbing like noise inside the cab and also outside the truck coming from the engine compartment when idling or driving slowly. Your patience during this time would be much appreciated. It's pretty uniform but very loud. it sounds like a clicking noise kind of. I noticed it starts when the car is idling for a while. Now that i know what it is i don't even pay any attention to it. A dull tapping or slapping. so far my idle is still smooth and the only time i can hear the rattling is at idle in park or neutral when the engine is not up to operating tempalso when i shut down the engine it makes a loud metallic clanking sound similar to the sound at idle but louder as the engine comes to a stop, regardless of operating temp. 0 knocking and clicking noise At idle it honestly sounds like a rod knocking- but when you give it any gas at all or drive it the noise stops immediately. If its occurs at low rpm, especially when not fully warmed up, it is the centrifugal de-compressor. Zetec engine and five speed box. Idle sounds about normal but above idle all you really hear is the turbo. These noises are normal and no repair is required. Knocking from the engine compartment. Now it's more of a chirping sound. Hard to locate exactly from which part of the engine. 8L with about 91k miles and I decided to test the performance of the engine, which I did. To check your clearances, you can insert a thickness gauge between the valve stem and the rocker arm or lifter. its done nearly 300,000ks. It rattles till I get to fairly constant speed. When I step on the gas the noise disappears but when I leave it idle, it starts to rattle as if a piece of plastic is touching a moving part. If you don't know the history of the engine maintenance having just purchased it used, wrong oil or inexpensive oil filter could have been used. Rattle/tick noise coming from engine on start up loud then disappears then loud again. The noise can't be heard inside the cabin and can only heard outside. If the light is long, the noise also goes away when the idle RPM changes (the idle RPM in my car always changes after a while if I wait at a long light; this is normal). It did it at idle mostly, at highway speeds it was ok. At first we thought it was the air conditioning compressor which is giving trouble, but it does it when the air is off too. 2000 Jeep Wrangler Engine Makes a Whistle Noise At Idle. Still runs rough but now it seems to backfire a lot and when check the temperatures of the CATs, bank 1 is quite a bit cooler than bank 2. Loud Clattering Noise / Low Oil Pressure at Idle on '87 944S The oil pressure gauge was really low, 1 to 2. The noise seems to be coming from the port side of the engine towards the transom. Or you just spray a special throttle body cleaner into it with the engine running. My father drives the e39 almost daily to work and unfortunately can not anymore due to this loud knocking noise at idle. to describe the noise it almost sounds like my car has a diesel engine, This doesn't happen all the time, and the noise is coming from the front passenger side of the vehicle, the car also has a slightly uneven idle(but not a full misfire), which I am hoping OEM spark plugs with fix. 2007 toyota tacoma 4x4 4. Today it's started making a really loud noise from the engine, it sounds like a fan, the noise stopped and started a couple of times, the engine temperature never goes over 90. Common problem that is not that hard to resolve. 0 SOHC engine commonly found in the 2000-2004 LX models, it. The idle drops and sounds like its guna cut out but never does as it picks. The popping noise tells you something isn't right. This sounds like an engine with lots of miles on it and worn bearings, pistons etc. The clicking sound is noticeable while I'm driving at lower speeds also. Build tolerance stack-up from engine to engine contributes to perceived differences in noise intensity. It follows the rpm, getting quicker as the tach climbs. This noise is above. Also normal. It's so loud that it hurts my ears, but it seems to be loudest in the vicinity of the manifolds/oil pump. '06 Jetta, DSG auto, 180 k on the clock. Any idea what it coud be. I only found out that this symptom is common with the engine from this website. Recently adjusted idle from high (1200) to more suitable 800 rpm. This noise is above. car has now done 110,000 miles. No one spent any time on this engine trying to make it nice. I think its turbo/engine related. Engine idled fine and didn't stumble or anything. There is a loud whining noise coming from the engine. 0 knocking and clicking noise At idle it honestly sounds like a rod knocking- but when you give it any gas at all or drive it the noise stops immediately. The problem: A rattling noise may be heard coming from the engine upon cold startup. And only a few seconds when the car starts. Also, when the engine is idling at 600 and I tap the gas pedal, it makes the same noise as in Kostamojen's first video. This would also explain that the noise is interminent (i. Engine just started cold one morning and heard this loud noise, sounds like a diesel. It's semi-rythmatic as the engine runs. Fuel of low quality or a low octane rating results in many different problems in the engine. With engine at idle, open the air intake filter box. Anyways, i had every noise you'll ever read about on these forums and now they're either 100% gone or very close. The only noise I hear under the hood is a light tick from the fuel injectors. I have a 2007 f-150 with 5. Is the oil level correct? Several years ago GM advised their service departments to check for after market oil filters which may cause loud engine noise and lead to engine damage. Me thinks it's a 4 stroke newbie (no offense kodiakkool) hearing vavles and cams moving around inside the motor, and I'm always right :. It's not a good sound either. While the engine is idling, listen for a knock or ticking noise. This is highly economical, highly effective fix for lifter noise problem. The Symptom: Engine hesitates, and a popping sound comes from the engine. When its very cold-20-30 degrees, it makes a loud tapping noise like a bad lifter for about a minute or so. FREE FIX - How to Diagnose and Adjust an A/C Compressor Clutch in Car Truck - Blows Cold Then Warm - Duration: 23:20. So, to make sure we're talking about the same thing, it's a light knocking noise, not the normal injector or engine noise. If your car makes noise when accelerating or turning, don't ignore it. after a while, the fan or something giving a fan noise starts coming up from my engine compartment, so loud until i sit inside my car with windows close can also hear the "vheeeeeeng" sound from the fan. 0L with 120,000 miles. check brake fluid level. So I have a 1996 Trophy 900 that has a serious clanking noise coming from the engine. Common problem that is not that hard to resolve. There was no real rhythm to sound. Clicking or a sharp tapping from the valve cover on top of the engine would point to a valve train noise. My 2011 V6 Malibu has been nearly trouble free so I decided to keep it for my new teen driver. Said that it was within the requirements set by Chevrolet. The noise would last for a couple of minutes. It may be my imagination, but it seems to idle a little louder. It happens mostly when the engine stops for safety reasons such as when engage reverse while mowing or when I stand up while engine is running. car has now done 110,000 miles. got a good deal on it ,now i get to spend some of the money i. Ticking Noise at Idle? I have it and somedays its loud some days its not and neither my mechanic or my tuner felt I need to be concerned. 2 days later, I went to nip to the shops and there is now suddenly, a knocking noise coming from the engine, and at the same time it feels really rough, as if its running on 3 cylinders. I have a new Forte EX w/2. Common problem that is not that hard to resolve. Car has developed an irregular, knocking noise coming from left side of engine (timing belt area) but only occurs at warm idle. Return engine speed to idle (verily knock returns). Thanks,I'll check the fluids in the morning. A vacuum leak on a fuel injected engine will cause high idle. Both are very quiet still with tors an cat bypass. The loud knocking noise goes away when you increase the rpms of the engine. A heat shield noise is a type of rattle you hear while your car is idling, or at a specific engine speed or RPM. It's so loud that it hurts my ears, but it seems to be loudest in the vicinity of the manifolds/oil pump. It goes away when revving. The Service Writer tells me" all MB have that noise" I am of the opnion that if I herd that ticking sound when I was test driving the car when it was new I would have left the dealer to look for another car. The noise seems to be coming from the port side of the engine towards the transom. At idle, I get a loud ticking noise about every second. Then after it warms up, it still makes ticking noise at idle and is noisier than it used to be on acceleration. Not a Dodge shop, byt have doing business with him for years. You can hear it. knock at hot idle under 1200 RPM at engine. If the noise intensity is more than a lightly audible knock at hot idle under 1,200 rpm at engine operating temperature, replace the cam phaser using the camshaft "In-Vehicle Repair" procedure. Quick Links Solving Automotive Idle Problems Home Honda Idle Issues, Hunting Idle Idle Speech Idle Speech, Page 2 I get a TON of questions about Honda idle problems so I've put together this article to help you should you run into a rough idle on your Honda. i don't hear anything at start up. I've read around and heard that it's quiet normal to make a ticking noise, but I just wanted to double check on here. Posted: Sun Jan 14, 2018 4:40 pm Post subject: Type 4 Engine Knocking Noise at Idle - PROBABLY SOLVED This sound just started a few weeks ago on my 1978 fuel injected 2. It is advisable to observe the noise level in several engines that have been properly broken in, in order to develop good judgment for checking the noise level in any given engine. You can check the oil pressure by taking out the oil pressure switch and screwing in a mechanical gauge. This can be felt through the whole boat like something was hitting the transom. A dull tapping or slapping. I guessing it might be the water pump. This noise is not the injector ticking noise, I know what that is and can hear it separately. Four Common Car Noises, Their Causes, and How to Fix Them Low knock at idle, noise gets louder as RPM's increase under a load. doesnt idle rough, but the engine seems loud when idling and driving. A humming, grinding or hissing car noise can end up costing you. If I lift the throttle it gets 10 times worse. The Five Overlooked Car Maintenance Items How Preventative Maintenance Can Help You Avoid Catastrophic Repair Costs. so far my idle is still smooth and the only time i can hear the rattling is at idle in park or neutral when the engine is not up to operating tempalso when i shut down the engine it makes a loud metallic clanking sound similar to the sound at idle but louder as the engine comes to a stop, regardless of operating temp. 0 engine, and I have noticed a clattering noise while at idle with the engine warm. That sound was very loud and apparent, so I couldn't tell exactly where it was coming from around the engine. to describe the noise it almost sounds like my car has a diesel engine, This doesn't happen all the time, and the noise is coming from the front passenger side of the vehicle, the car also has a slightly uneven idle(but not a full misfire), which I am hoping OEM spark plugs with fix. Engine has been making a knocking/tapping noise at idle that sounds EXACTLY like in this video ( ). I'm sure this has been addressed before, but I have started noticing a pretty loud clicking noise coming from the engine, not only at idle but it seems to click faster as I drive and as I slow it gets slower. Other nations have exhaust noise reduction laws in effect that apply to the whole country. I thought that noise was from when the engine RPM passes through 650-700, it was making that rattling noise for a moment. While it was running, there was a very loud clanking noise, like something was loose. Mercruiser 3. If the noise disappears or lessens substantially when a wire has been removed, that cylinder will be the likely suspect for a bad rod bearing. The noise does not go with the idle of the engine. Not there at cold start either, just once it comes down to normal idle and is starting to warm up. It sounds like you have air in your power steering system. If you turn the car off and are listening to the radio or until the car shuts down (i. It makes the noise at idle, but then seems to go away during acceleration. If your engine develops a knocking noise while driving, usually it's quickly followed by a red or amber warning light on the dash notifying the driver there is a problem. It knocks every two seconds (estimate) There is no noise when cold, nor when hot, kinda in between, I think. If an engine has a tendency to ping, it usually becomes first audible when operated in the lower rpm range and during acceleration. This would also explain that the noise is interminent (i. The noise usually is most noticeable at the rear of the driver's side front wheel well. At first I thought it was coming from the engine, but when I lifted the bonnet I couldn't hear it. The rough idle/stalling problem was aleviated a bit by me changing the spark plugs and the MAF, but I still get a sputter every now and then while I'm idle or on Park, but no DTC code or "Check Engine" light comes on. If the engine is out of idle stabilization mode, (engine below 700 RPM), you will hear and feel a slight drop in RPM. Why would a Ford Focus engine sound so loud but smooth and why would it idle so hard? Check exhaust system for a leak Well, if it's a 2. 8) Wait 20 seconds. I have to phone them back on Monday. Loud enough to sound like having glass packed mufflers on the inside of the car. It's pretty loud. It makes the noise at idle, but then seems to go away during acceleration. The ticking is coming mainly from the right side of the engine bay. I have a 2000 Jeep Wrangler 4. Fri afternoon a loud ticking/clacking noise began to take place at idle. Try to determine the rate at which the noise is occurring. I have a 2008 Dodge Avenger with 2. Posted on Apr 09, 2010. They are $100 each. I sense that the engine oil has settled over a period of time not running. A humming, grinding or hissing car noise can end up costing you. Start the engine and let it reach normal operating temperature. It's a HO with at 48RE, built Jan. I cleaned up the camshaft, auto-decomp, oiled generously everything and assembled engine top for the last time. this truck has been loud at idle - sounding almost like a diesel from inside the truck or at the right spot outside. I have no idea why they ever have placed the crankcase breather line into the resonator box, causing the oil deposits into the idle air passage. It will tap away like a little drummer. Is it a loud rattle or a light drum like ticking? On the top side of the engine in front of the brake booster is a object labeled MOT,that is your purge valve. I cleaned up the camshaft, auto-decomp, oiled generously everything and assembled engine top for the last time. especially if you were to open the hood. However everything else seems ok, engine idles super smooth (better than before), revs fine, no hesitation. The dealer performed an oil consumption report last may. I had the power steering pump replaced twice( 2nd time cuz it was still making the noise). It knocks every two seconds (estimate) There is no noise when cold, nor when hot, kinda in between, I think. I guessing it might be the water pump. Sue, I'm not sure about your engine size, but the 3. Engine noise at idle noticed is the really loud whirring for ~20-30 seconds or so on a cold start, like an additional pump or fan is running or something. 4 liter 4 cylinder engine and 4 speed automatic transmission. The truck hasn't lost signifigant power, and has no aftermarket. I have a 2001 CRV and makes a high pitch whinning or whistling sound with the engine rpm. Loud whining noise when idle / Increase in RPM. It gets so loud that I can barely hear my exhaust and I have a pretty loud exhaust. 4L, 3-valve engine may exhibit a ticking and/or knocking noise after reaching normal operating temperature, or may exhibit a rattle upon starting. I immediately cut it off, waited a few seconds and restarted it but the "clacking" continued. 0 engine, and I have noticed a clattering noise while at idle with the engine warm. Rattling Noise& Dies at in Idle I recently purchased a 2000 Pontiac Grand Prix GT 3. I'm having some trouble with my Caliber. The noise seemed to be coming from the front top engine side. the engine makes a loud. If the noise intensity is more than a lightly audible knock at hot idle under 1,200 rpm at engine operating temperature, replace the cam phaser using the camshaft "In-Vehicle Repair" procedure. The Dawg Pound. If the muffler were faulty it seems like it would be continuous, all the time, and present at engine speeds other than idle as well. Reinstalled 2 and removed 1, engine ends up running smooth at idle. Nitro 5 fan very loud even on idle or browsing, is it normal? Rink Posts: 1 Member New User. The truck runs great, but I began hearing a slight rubbing like noise inside the cab and also outside the truck coming from the engine compartment when idling or driving slowly. After warming to around 130 degrees the noise stops, and the engine sounds normal. I have recently noticed this tick/clack/clicking noise at idle that seems to be very loud. You can check the oil pressure by taking out the oil pressure switch and screwing in a mechanical gauge. I have read a lot about the injectors ticking- this does that but very quietly. I mentioned this to the Honda. When I step on the gas the noise disappears but when I leave it idle, it starts to rattle as if a piece of plastic is touching a moving part. You could not hear it except at idle or low rpms. Just left the dealership for the second time after the temperature gauge on my car started to move while idle. My problem is above idle it has just about no engine noise. When you hear abnormal noises there is something wrong. dejongmc wrote:Sometimes there is a loud ticking noice coming from the engine. Ticking Noise at Idle? I have it and somedays its loud some days its not and neither my mechanic or my tuner felt I need to be concerned. the engine seems to be kind of loud for a 4 cyl, not sure if its normal? i only have 25k miles on my 03 le, dont remember if i recall the engine was loud from the start, but its definitely loud for a 4 cyl, thought little sedan wouldnt be as noisythis is engine noise i am talking about, hear i. you mostly hear it at idle when the fan of the radiator has to engage to cool the engine). Took it to my shop. While it was running, there was a very loud clanking noise, like something was loose. I can't figure out what this is and if its normal. It sounds to me like it is near the front of the engine bay. Reply It's quite loud so you don't need to get up close to the engine to hear it. Engine noise will do the same thing after you notice the exhaust sound. The sound is not very loud, but definately audible with the bonnet open, and when going down corridors etc. Far from most other cars I've looked at that were barely audible. Thanks in advance for the help. The starter sounds smooth and it turns over without any sound. Hi My 2000 740 has a ticking / tapping on the engine. Not a big deal. 5 years now and roughly about a year ago I was driving down the road and all of a sudden heard this loud whining noise. The popping noise tells you something isn't right. Loud clunking noise from engine at idle? First thing is to check the timing belt if it is a 4 cylinder model. 7) Start engine and let it idle. I have recently noticed this tick/clack/clicking noise at idle that seems to be very loud. I'm kind of stumped. Why Is My Engine Knocking When My Car Is Idle? When an engine knocks, one of the likely causes is low-quality fuel. Oil pressure seems unaffected (this is an old engine that has not been rebuilt - about 20 PSI at idle). The problem: A rattling noise may be heard coming from the engine upon cold startup. I put the key in the ignition, car starts like its about to die for 3 sec while choking on the carborator cleaner fumes and then it revs like a mofo. Mine clickes but it is not too loud. I have that same tic sound in my engine. the noise is loud and obnoxious at idle when under load. This cycle has been going on for about. I have a 2007 Doge Ram 1500 with a 5. The most common evidence of a failing CCT is a prominent rattle or ticking noise coming from the right side of the engine on a cold start (often mistaken for a noisy valve train), and the noise will go away when the engine reaches operating temperature and oil pressure is revived. Is there any way to repair it? I called the dealer and they said there is a left and right timing belt cover. Randomly it can take about 10 seconds of cranking before it fires up. About 10 or so seconds after starting, while at idle, our engine starts making a low, deep, growling, rattling noise. Anyways, I'm going to check the timing on my X next. knock at hot idle under 1200 RPM at engine. I've alwayds have had periodic lifter tapping (which disappeared depending on oil weight), but now I am getting a somewhat different sound coming from the passengers side of the engine. Take it to a different shop if the mechanic thinks that noise is normal. Hi My 2000 740 has a ticking / tapping on the engine. video attached and bloody embarrassing. This is probably tappet noise from the top end of the engine. The grinding/clunky noise comes and goes while idle,it kinda loud but not too loud,its just annoying sometimes. When you push in the clutch pedal, the transmission is disconnected from the engine and is therefor not turning. Oil pressure seems unaffected (this is an old engine that has not been rebuilt - about 20 PSI at idle). Engine has developed over the last several weeks an ominous noise from the valve train. dejongmc wrote:Sometimes there is a loud ticking noice coming from the engine. I put the key in the ignition, car starts like its about to die for 3 sec while choking on the carborator cleaner fumes and then it revs like a mofo. 6L, 3-valve or 5. My mom calls her 2. I would describe it as a semi-high pitched rhythmic whine coming from the engine while the car is idling in either D or R. Today with 2 passengers, it started making a loud noise around 40mph at 2000 rpm. It made the noise again briefly as I shut the motor off. Lower engine noise sources include the crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons. but is making it every day now. A heat shield noise is a type of rattle you hear while your car is idling, or at a specific engine speed or RPM. My engine has developed a strange ticking sound. I guess Im really anal about these loud XL800 engines because I took it in to a reputable shop and the guy in there has an 800 and said thats just normal engine noise and the 800 and 1200's are pretty loud. Valvetrain Noise. After the engine. so far my idle is still smooth and the only time i can hear the rattling is at idle in park or neutral when the engine is not up to operating tempalso when i shut down the engine it makes a loud metallic clanking sound similar to the sound at idle but louder as the engine comes to a stop, regardless of operating temp. The noise that happens when I first start the car in the morning is best described as metal little balls bouncing through out the engine. Loud whining sound at idle after a fairly short run It runs great! However after the last couple of runs of only 10/15 miles I hear a high pitched whine when the engine is idling (don't think it was there before). I first noticed it when I was driving back home from work; eventually it seemed like the car lost some power and had some delay between pressing the gas pedal and actually moving. Best way I can describe it is a loud metallic knock. So could somebody tell me what it might. One general consensus among the Honda VT1100 Shadow owners is that unless this noise is really loud, like a loud tapping noise, that it shouldn't damage the engine. You have the standard engine noise that everyone expects. Nitro 5 fan very loud even on idle or browsing, is it normal? Rink Posts: 1 Member New User. You could not hear it from outside the car as it drove past. Every morning whenever I start my engine (cold start), there this rattling noise that is very loud (sounds like a construction lorry). The most common engine rattling at idle isn't an engine problem at all. This won't tell you if it's a coupler, but will at least eliminate engine noise. I bought a 2015 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Z71 Crew Cab 4X4 with the 5. Use a stethoscope to find the location of the noise. car sat up for months on lot. I recently noticed that there’s a rattling sound when the car in in idle (800RPM) but it disappear when I rev it up to higher RPM or while driving. When I looked the water pump was leaking. Most of the time the car is fine but then a VERY loud noise comes on. cannot exceed a noise level of 86 decibels measured at a distance of 50 feet form the vessel. Lower engine noise sources include the crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons. Reply It's quite loud so you don't need to get up close to the engine to hear it. Tried to start it up this morning and the engine light was on. What do you guys think about this. Fuel of low quality or a low octane rating results in many different problems in the engine. It lasts for a few seconds, then disappears to reappear a few seconds later. After the engine got warmed the tapping noise will slowly disappeared, also if I pressed the throttle during that loud noise and keep it in 2000rpm for about 3-5 second the noise will gone as well. It doesnt happen all the time and of course every single time it does it, the dealer can never figure out what the **** is wrong with it. Place your foot on the brake with the engine in neutral and idling. Brand new 2015 Mazda 3 - Loud Engine Noise? Just bought a new Mazda and noticed when it is in Idle/stopped the engine noise is very loud. So it's still there without any of the accessories turning. Removed wiring from Cyl 3, no change in engine idling. Last week, I started my truck and noted a loud noise thta sounds like an big hole in the exhaust pipe at idle. It's not a light sound it's very loud. Randomly it can take about 10 seconds of cranking before it fires up. It was a consistent noise. but as the motor RPM is returning to idle the knock is more. Thanks in advance for the help. Idle sounds about normal but above idle all you really hear is the turbo. The engine sounds like it is going to come apart when started and during acceleration. This would also explain that the noise is interminent (i. It's not a light sound it's very loud. Having the exhaust repaired before it gets too loud offers the most benefit to you. I have to phone them back on Monday. If you have access to the lift, check the noises from below. I have a 2008 Dodge Avenger with 2. I just got my 05 GS out of storage, checked it over, started it up for a warm up, and it has a loud engine noise from the left cylinder? Has anyone had this happen? Never had anything brake while not in use. Sue, I'm not sure about your engine size, but the 3. If a noise comes in now, you can use a piece of dowel as a stethoscope to determine where the noise is coming from. Being horizontally opposed it causes the engine to gently shake right and left. The noise is still there. This is the first BMW we have owned, and my wife and I really enjoy driving it. That's why you have to hold the brake constantly, the engine's "thrust" will creep the car up to about 5 mph if you don't. However you should have it looked at quickly as these engines had a severe problem with oil sludging, even when recommended services were done. I first noticed it when I was driving back home from work; eventually it seemed like the car lost some power and had some delay between pressing the gas pedal and actually moving. Some high output engines have short skirt pistons or roller valve trains so a minimal amount of ticking is normal when the engine is at idle. Note: This is a Honda C35 engine, the. Some engines have a normal ticking noise caused by electrical components like injectors, relays, and solenoids, and also the engine itself makes some noise turning thousands of RPM's (revolutions per minute), but for the most part, engines should generally have only a very soft ticking noise with no knocking noise. Re: IX Engine idle noise (belt noise?) (video) i have a noise somewhat like that on mine aswell not that loud tho. To check your clearances, you can insert a thickness gauge between the valve stem and the rocker arm or lifter. but is making it every day now. If the engine has a carburetor instead of fuel injection it probably has a mechanical fuel pump mounted to the engine. It only gets loud under harder accel. When you hear abnormal noises there is something wrong. You press the accelerator pedal, the engine runs faster, you release, it slows down to a smooth idle. It sounds to me like it is near the front of the engine bay. When I step on the gas the noise disappears but when I leave it idle, it starts to rattle as if a piece of plastic is touching a moving part. the noise, probably due to the external noise from the engine. It is completely stock with hydraulic lifters, and I wanted to see if any of the type 4 guru's out there have any ideas what this might be. So it's still there without any of the accessories turning. Re: 89 Sea Ray won't shift into gear - loud noise at idle It *could* be a coupler, but it could be a lot of other things too. Sue, I'm not sure about your engine size, but the 3. Fuel of low quality or a low octane rating results in many different problems in the engine. The 2006 Dodge Ram 1500 has 8 problems reported for engine noise at idle. And only a few seconds when the car starts.